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Children's First Aid Knowledge
In the process of growing up, turning, walking, running, jumping... these actions inevitably bring kids bumps and bruises. Therefore, in the face of unpredictable accidental injuries, it is necessary for parents to learn how to take first aid measures for their children.
1. The head bumps
If the baby cries immediately after bumping his or her head and is back to normal soon, parents need not worry too much. If the baby does not cry after the hit and appears to be pale, vomiting, or even in a spasm, he or she must be sent to the hospital for emergency treatment.
After the bump, it is safer to observe the kid for at least 24-48 hours even if there is no symptom at the time. Once the baby is under abnormal conditions such as somnolence, muscle weakness, crying or headache, going to the hospital for further examination is in urgent need.
First aid basics
(1) Do not shake your baby's body when the situation is critical.
(2) Do not rub the bruises, or it will cause subcutaneous bleeding.
(3) The swollen part of the head can be cold-applied with an ice bag or a wet towel. Change to hot compress after 24-48 hours.
(4) Observe whether there is a depressed fracture of skull, that is, the skull is ruptured or sunk by external force collision. In this case, the baby must be sent to the hospital for further examination asap.
2. Skin abrasions or bleeding
Skin damage can be divided into skin abrasions and skin breakage.
i. Skin abrasions
Local red swellings, bruises and aches may occur after skin abrasions.
First aid basics
(1) Clean the affected area with warm water.
(2) Coat the affected area with iodine. Scratches will heal by themselves.
(3) For bruises with larger swelling area, make a cold compress first. 24 - 48 hours later, switch to hot compress.
ii. Skin breakage
In addition to pain and wound, skin breakage is severer with more bleeding.
First aid basics
(1) Hemostasis methods
Method 1: Finger-pressing method. Press the wound with your fingers or a tourniquet for 5-10 minutes.
Method 2: Bandaging method. Directly press on the wound with sterile gauze or a clean handkerchief. Then wrap up the wound with a bandage or towel.
NOTES: If two methods above do not work, the wound should be tightly bandaged and the injured part should be raised. Children must be taken to the hospital urgently.
(2) For small wound, apply it with Mercurochrome and keep it dry.
(3) For dirty wound, immediately wipe with sterile saline or wash by cold water. Otherwise, the wound is more likely to be infected.
(4) For large wound, clean it with saline. Make the disinfection with 75% alcohol solution, starting with the edge of the wound and gradually expanding outward. Do not cover the wound with dirty cotton, toilet paper, lime, etc. Wrap it with sterile gauze without medicine applied.
(5) For a large and dirty wound, children need more professional treatment promptly.
Burns can generally be classified into mild, moderate and severe.
Mild skin burns can cause redness and pain. If it can be flushed and cooled for at least 20 minutes immediately after scald, the condition will generally get better in 2 to 3 days.
Moderate scald will cause epidermal ulceration and blisters. The wound may be deep to dermis. Generally in 2 to 3 weeks the wound can be cured.
Severe scald causes damage directly to subcutaneous tissue. Moderate and severe scalds must be treated in hospital.
First aid basics
After a burn, you should cool your skin immediately. This is because 80% of the burns are caused by the spread of waste heat.
(1) Slowly flush the wound from flowing cold water for about twenty minutes. The water must spread from the center of the wound to the surrounding area to prevent infection.
(2) Keep the wound clean and do not tear the blisters on the skin. Do not apply any medicine on your own to prevent wound infection.
(3) Cover the wound with a fresh-keeping bag and go to the hospital for medical treatment. Do not wrap it.
(4) If the clothes and skin are stuck, do not forcibly peel off. Use scissors to cut off the clothes that are not glued around. Cover the wound gently with a clean sheet and go to the hospital for medical treatment.
(5) Provided the burned part is in a special area such as face, neck, perineum, etc., even if the wound is small, complications may occur. At that time, in addition to cold water emergency treatment, children should have some brackish water to prevent shock.
4. Animal bites
Although pets are our friends, occasionally they will harm babies while playing. So, what should parents do when children are bitten by an animal?
First aid basics
(1) Wash the wound. Wash the wound thoroughly with clean water or soapy water for at least 20 minutes. Then apply 2.5% iodine and wrap it with gauze.
NOTES: Do not squeeze the wound, or the rabies virus will enter the nervous system at a faster rate.
(2) If there is bleeding, do not stop blood flowing immediately. Out-running blood can wash away some bacteria and viruses in the wound.
(3) Go to the hospital for treatment as soon as possible. After bitten, the rabies vaccine should be injected within 2~3 hours
Once the baby has a nosebleed, parents should apply compression hemostasis to stop bleeding. Do not look skyward, which will make blood flow into the respiratory tract and cause suffocation. Nosebleed after trauma is more likely to be cerebrospinal fluid from the skull base injury. In this circumstance, blocking the nose may cause intracranial infection.
First aid measures
(1) Let the child sit down. Lean forward slightly and open the mouth. Try to breathe with mouth.
(2) Squeeze the nose with thumb and forefinger (approximately 10 min) until the blood stops.
(3) If blood keeps flowing, seek medical treatment immediately.
NOTES: Parents are supposed to pay attention to correcting the bad habits of their kids, while children should eat more fruits and vegetables. Besides, during the dry season, humidifier can be used to increase the moisture content in the air.
Accidents cannot be avoided, but they can be prevented in advance. In order to respond to these unexpected situations and make children's first aid in time, parents should always have a Family Medical Kit at hand, which is extremely practical in our daily life. It contains aseptic medical products such as alcohol pads, cotton swabs, bandages, gauze, etc., to protect your children's health. In addition to the comprehensive product, this Family Medical Kit is also very portable. No matter where you are going, you can take it and make kids first aid always available for your kids. To make children healthier and happier in their growing process, the Family Medical Kit is the best choice for parents.